Measurement and Evaluation

Why Are We So Confused about Public Relations Research?

Institute for Public Relations President & CEO Frank Ovaitt presented this lecture to public relations research students at the University of Florida. Exploring the role research plays in the communications field, he discusses how standards can benefit the practice.

An Examination of the Validity, Reliability and Best Practices Related to the Proposed Standards for Traditional Media

2014 Jackson-Sharpe Award Winner

David Geddes, Ph.D., Julie O’Neil, Ph.D, and Marianne Eisenmann, MBA, received the Jackson-Sharpe Award for this 2014 International Public Relations Research Conference submission. Abstract: At the 16th Annual IPRRC in March 2013 the researchers presented the first phase of the study Assessing the Reliability Metrics Proposed as Standards for Traditional Media Analysis. Researchers received considerable, thoughtful feedback both during and after the Conference that has informed Phase Two of the research – an enhanced, stronger piece of research building on the previous study.  The initial study tested the metrics using inexperienced coders, trained using a coding guidebook and instructions developed by ...

Toward the Establishment of Ethical Standardization in Public Relations Research, Measurement and Evaluation

Measurement Summit 3.1 Presentation

At the Measurement Summit 3.1, a “think-fest” on the future of public relations research standards conducted by the IPR Measurement Commission, Don W. Stacks, Ph.D., presented “Toward the Establishment of Ethical Standardization in Public Relations Research, Measurement and Evaluation,” on behalf of Shannon A. Bowen, Ph.D., and himself.  The presentation was based on a paper published by Stacks and Bowen in Public Relations Journal.  The presentation can be downloaded below, and the original paper can be found at:

Measuring the Edifice

Public Relations Measurement and Evaluation Practices Over the Course of 40 Years

Abstract Public relations measurement and evaluation practices have been major subjects for practitioners and academician research from the late 1970s onwards. This chapter will commence with a brief survey of the historical evolution of the research into these practices. Then, we will discuss James E. Grunig’s enduring contribution to their theorization, particularly with financial and non-financial indicators of public relations value. Next, we will consider the current debate on financial indicators, focusing on Return on Investment and alternative methods of financial vlauation. Finally, we will look to the future at the measurement and evaluation practices that will attract academic and practitioner ...

Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research

Third Edition

The Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research has become one of the most popular papers the Institute for Public Relations has ever published.  This third edition covers an expanded number of terms, addition of social media terms and processes, and adds ethics as a category.  The Editorial Board is international in scope and a combination of top academic and professional researchers. This is a Gold Standard paper that has been selected by the Measurement Commission for its expert contribution to the theoretical structure of measurement, research methodology, statistical analyses, and evaluation. These preeminent papers have become part of the core ...

Social Media Measurement: A Step-By-Step Approach

Social media measurement can be fairly simple or highly complex depending on one’s organizational goals and objectives.  But with hundreds of tools, thousands of metrics and all too many self-identified measurement gurus, public relations professionals are struggling through a maze of options, unsure of which really matter.  This paper combines a review of some key literature surrounding social media measurement, provides updates on industry standard-setting bodies, and provides an Eight-Step Social Media Measurement Process as a place to start. The process utilizes the International Association for the Measurement and Evaluation of Communication’s (AMEC; new Valid Metrics Framework (see also ...

Is that all there is? A literature review and potential approach to measuring influence in social media

The Institute of Public Relations awarded this paper a “Top 3 Competition Paper of Practical Significance” at the 16th International PR Research Conference (2013). This research-in-progress seeks to uncover a deeper understanding of how influence works online, and how we might measure influence beyond the outputs and outtakes. In this literature review, several salient themes emerge: Influence explained via social impact and opinion leadership Mixed results on both accounts Influence applied by a group on its individual members By and large, literature supports this principle Social identification with the group leads to being influenced by its members Influence as a consequence of position in a social network Two ...

Advancing Public Relations Measurement

Speaking at the 3rd IPRA International Public Relations Congress & Latin American Meeting in Lima Peru, IPR Measurement Commission chair David Geddes provided an in-depth international framework for public relations measurement today and tomorrow.  His topic included a framework for standards setting, predictive analytics, using measurement to build organizational value and illustrative case studies.

International Media Analysis Made Simple

More and more organizations need to measure their media coverage globally, but how can they do this cost effectively? This paper takes a very granular approach to helping the reader define business goals and objectives; determine suitable measures; analyze media content needs; evaluate dashboard systems; determine language and analysis processes; develop measurement scorecards; select provider services; sell the solutions internally; and, evaluate their success. Clear pros and cons to every option are provided, enabling the reader to balance the three competing essentials: quality, speed and cost.

Proposed Interim Standards for Metrics in Traditional Media Analysis

Discussion Document - Version 1.0

June 2012 – Organizations engage in traditional media relations for many reasons and their objectives for analyzing the media coverage may be similarly varied. Media coverage can serve as a proxy for public perception and is relatively inexpensive and accessible. Public relations professionals apply media analysis to help demonstrate the value of PR, provide insights to make better decisions, improve performance, understand issues and anticipate change. The IPR Measurement Commission proposes the following standards for consideration. The overall recommendation seeks to ensure that measures used in analysis are well-formulated and implemented by (i) gaining agreement from the start among all relevant ...